BACK TO 100 examples in Business, Operations and Engineering.
Click Here

           Apply  Worldwide Now         

Do it once, do it right, and do it now.

Email Lawson Computing

Back to Lawson Computing Homepage

Apply as needed, when needed.

 

Productivity though Process Analysis : Productivity Management

 

Industrial Engineering for the shop floor.

 

 

Ch 1 ....IE and Process .............Improvements

Ch 4 .........Product Process .........................Analysis

Ch 7 ......Clerical Process
....................Analysis

Ch 2 .....Process .......Improvement Steps

Ch 5 .....Operator Process ...................Analysis

Ch 8.....Process Analysis
................Case Studies

Ch 3 ...Process Analysis

Ch 6 ....Joint Process .............Analysis

Notes below

IE and Process Improvements

Industrial Engineering is a group of techniques that are used to eliminate the BIG THREE OF WASTE. WASTE, INCONSISTENCIES, and IRRATIONALITIES.

Method improvement techniques.

Process analysis / Motion study / Conveyance and equipment layout.

Work measurement techniques:

time studies.

can be used alone but compliment each other. also closely interrelated.

process analysis is most valuable tool for studying flow in operations.

rules

follow improvement steps.

use improvement steps.

 IE is a hands on activity. Learn by practicing it.

 Seven Quality Control Tools.

(cause and effect diagrams)= Pareto diagrams / check sheets / histograms / scatter diagrams / graphs and management charts / stratification.

 Start by 1. understanding the facts. / improvement is limitless /

 In manufacturing PROCESS ANALYSIS is the most fundamental method in carrying out the never ending processing improvements.

 CHAP 2 PROCESS IMPROVEMENT STEPS.

first must grasp an understanding of the current situation.

 1. discovery of problem. what needs improvement.

2. Analysis of the current conditions. how are things done now ?

3. I.D. of major problem points. what is the improvement goal and where do the BIG THREE problems exist.

4. creation of the improvement plan. what must be done to eliminate the BIG THREE problems.

5. Implementation and evaluation of the improvement plan. did it work?

6. follow up measures. STANDARDIZE the plan / prevent backsliding.

IMPROVEMENTS ARE INFINITE, GO BACK AND FIND NEXT PROBLEM.

 1. DISCOVERY OF PROBLEMS.

Better to find problems yourself, solve problems in making before major problem.

look at statistical indicators of the past (capacity utilization,yield,unit cost,efficiency). other companies, compare.

IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS. PQCDSM Checklist.

PRODUCTIVITY = lately lower?,can it be raised?, worker productivity.

QUALITY = up/down,be improved, more customer complaints.

COST= up/down,materials cost increases?

DELIVERY = more late deliveries, lead time be shortened?

SAFETY = accidents increased?,unsafe work practices?

MORALE = up/down,interpersonal problems? right job assignments.

Find the BASIC problem(s) , make priority list of them if needed.

2. ANALYZING CURRENT CONDITIONS

Analyze the facts as they are. your eyes are crucial to maintain objectivity.

Use QUANTITATIVE DATA to describe problem points. ~ tons per hour,meters per trip.

Use symbols and graphs to describe problems. ezer for others to understand.

3. INDETIFYING MAJOR PROBLEM POINTS.

SHOULD NOW KNOW big three AT THIS TIME.

Gather up results of current conditions and meet with the concerned parties involved.

4. DRAFTING IMPROVEMENT PLAN.

FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR MAKING PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS.

1. Eliminate processes whenever possible.

2. Simplify them.

Combine them.

Change the sequence.

 

FOUR PURPOSES FOR IMPROVEMENTS.

Reduce fatigue.

Higher quality.

Shorter lead times.

lower costs.

Eliminate / simplify / combine / change sequence in order of operation.

 The plan will have 3 stages in development.

first draft / 2nd draft and final draft.

 

IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATION THE PLAN.

Give it a trial run. /use simulation / training .

RARELY RIGHT OFF THE DRAWING BOARD.

FOLLOW UP MEASURES.

Standardization/ other tactics to ensure past habits do not return.

BE READY FOR THE NEXT IMPROVEMENT.

 CHAPTER 3 PROCESS ANALYSIS.

 Transformations of materials to products include the following steps.

OPERATIONS

TRANSPORTATION

INSPECTIONS

DELAYS OR STORAGE.

Process analysis can be summed up as : Looking at the overall flow of work to find ways of making it better.

Process analysis in the foundation of method improving techniques.

Process analysis is also just one milestone in the way to improvement.

THE PURPOSE OF PROCESS ANALYSIS.

Over time steps are taken for granted.

So follow this.

Study the flow of processes.

Find the waste in the flows.

Consider changing the sequence to a more efficient sequence.

Consider if flow is smooth and if any problems exist in equipment layout or the transport system.

Consider if steps in process are adding value and what would happen if these steps stopped.

Process analysis is always your primary tool for find the BIG THREE.

Consider UPSTREAM and DOWNSTREAM effects of any decisions or actions.

TYPES OF PROCESS ANALYSIS.

PRODUCT PROCESS =

OPERATOR PROCESS.

JOINT PROCESS = man/machine, several operators

3b. OPERATOR-MACHINE ANALYSIS OR JOINT OPERATION ANALYSIS.

CLERICAL PROCESS .

 

PROCESS CHART SYMBOLS.

O= operation

= transportation

= delay or storage

&127 = inspection

These are the most widely used for process analysis. 

CHAP 4 PRODUCT PROCESS ANALYSIS.

Product process analysis is an analytical method to study the flow of resources being handled at that PROCESS.

Product Processes

Linear

Converging

Branching

Compound

know types and flow of products.

Linear =. Sequence of steps all in one line. A one line of processes.

Converging =.usually when other products are used and assembly leads INTO ONE LINE.

Branching = .The REVERSE of the converging process. One line branches into others.

THIS TYPE OF SYSTEM REQUIRES CONSIDERATION OF THE LOT SIZES BEING CARRIED TO THE BRANCH PROCESS LINES.

Compound = . branch off line and back unto line.

Compound one = returns to line at same place it parted from.

Compound two = returns to line at a Downstream position of where it left.Rare but still exist. ~ Rework.

PURPOSE of Product PROCESS analysis.

Improve sequence of steps in the process.~easier,cheaper,quicker~ yeh that all.

CHECK FOR.

1.unnecessary delay points along line.

2.unnecessary transportation trips.

unnecessarily long transportation trips.

problems posed by the method of transportation.

opportunities to combine operations and inspections.

While Studying.

Equipment layout.

Sequence of work

Distribution of workloads.

STEPS IN PROCESS ANALYSIS

1. PRELIMINARY STUDY

study should cover

1. Production volumn both planned and actual.

Description of product and relevant quality standards.

Inspection Standards.(beginning,middle,end, yield?)

Equipment Layout.

Process Flow.

Materials.

 

Draw up a process flow chart.

DISTINGUISH between storage and simple delay.

Break down INSPECTION into VOLUME and QUALITY entities.

Clear as possible when one step ends and another one starts.

 Record measurments for all required items in each process.

May want preprinted process chart worksheet.

Step Activity Personnel Machine/Equipment Location Time Method

OPERATION (WHY) (WHO) (WHAT) (WHERE) (AMOUNT) (HOW)

TRANSPORT TASK SAME METHOD WHERETOWHERE---SAME UNITS

INSPECTION

ABOVE SEE PAGE 35 IN PRODUCT PROCESS BOOK.

~ TRANSPORTATION DISTANCE= PER TRIP * TRIP DISTANCE.

~TRANSPORTATION TIME = TIME FOR ONE TRIP * AMT OF TRIPS.

ABOVE WORKSHEET SHOWS HOW PRODUCTS FLOW THOUGHT COMPANY..

 Organize results .

transportation,inspection and retention add nothing to value and should be hit first.

Operations themselves are looked at also to make simpler and easier.

Draft improvement plan.

Pick out problem points and start devising improvements to solve problems.

This is the time for all concerned parties to be present.

Sort all improvement concerns by PROCESS STEPS.

(overall,operations,transportations,inspections,retentions)

Draft your plan according to above 2 lines.

Prepare to or three plans and get input from supervisors and other concerned parties.

The next step is to draw flow diagrams and process flow charts that show your improvement plan(s).

try to adjust layout, maybe a scale model of shop floor.

Use a data chart (p39)

# of steps time distance people

operation

transportation

inspection

retention

cost money so have a rough idea of saving before if at all possible.

 Implement and Evaluate the Improvement Plan.

Approval=start plan.

Measure only after workers have received training and become proficient in new methods.

ANY PROBLEMS AT THIS TIME SHOULD BE DEALT WITH ACCORDINGLY.

 STANDARDIZE THE Improvement plan.

If successful do it to prevent backsliding.

CHAP 5

OPERATOR PROCESS ANALYSIS.

Operator process analysis is a analytical method by which you study a sequence of OPERATION RELATED TASKS THAT ARE PERFORMED BY THE OPERATOR. Then this data is plotted on a PROCESS ANALYSIS CHART find the problems and minimize them.

These steps are almost identical to the one described in chap 4 only OPERATOR ARE THE FOCUS INSTEAD OF PRODUCTS.

PURPOSE O.A.

CHECK FOR.

1.unnecessary delay points along line.

2.unnecessary transportation trips.

unnecessarily long transportation trips.

problems posed by the method of transportation.

opportunities to combine operations and inspections.

While Studying.

Equipment layout.

Sequence of work

Distribution of workloads.

 STEPS IN PROCESS ANALYSIS

 1. PRELIMINARY STUDY

study should cover

1.Ask around and read up on facts concerning current production conditions such as

state of the equipment / the layout / process flow / raw materials / products.

Find out the proficiency of the operators, use an average proficiency for calculations.

 Draw up a process flow chart.

Consider purpose of each step within the categories of each step.

Operations/Transportation/Inspection/Delays.

close as possible when one step ends and another one starts.

Do not be vague since errors here will follow you.

 Record measurments for all required items in each process.

May want preprinted worksheet.

List names of machines, equipment jigs , sites and other data.

Unit of analysis is the lot size in one cycle of operations. MUST HAVE A UNIT ANALYSIS.

Organize the Analysis results.

Find ways to limit all steps that do not add value.

~ inc. transportation, inspection and delay.

Then the operations themselves easier and faster.

 Draft the improvement plan.

Input again is critical from parties involved.

Cut things as listed in 4.

Compare current conditions to expected results in a comparison chart.

 IMPLEMENT AND EVALUATE THE IMPROVEMENT PLAN.

Remember training, and wait for proficiency until measurements of new methods are dode.

Address any problems here fast and furiously.

Standardize the improvement plan.

To prevent back sliding.

Remember no plan is perfect and improvement is limitless.

 CHAP 6 JOINT PROCESS ANALYSIS.

 One worker with one machine.

One worker with many machines.

Many workers together.

Many workers with one machine.

Many workers with many machines.

THIS IS SOMETIMES CALLED COMBINED OPERATION ANALYSIS.\

FURTHER BROKE DOWN TO OPERATOR-MACHINE ANALYSIS AND

JOINT OPERATION ANALYSIS FOR STUDYING MANY PEOPLE WORKING TOGETHER.

Many is more than one.

JOINT PROCESS ANALYSIS REVEALS EXACTLY WHERE IDLE TIME EXISTS.

IT FACILITATES IN IMPROVEMENTS TO ELIMINATE WASTE IN COMPANIES.

IT CAN BE USED WITH PRODUCT PROCESS ANALYSIS AND OPERATOR PROCESS ANALYSIS TO OBTAIN OPTIMAL RESULTS.

 PURPOSE OF JOINT PROCESS ANALYSIS.

1. Eliminate machine idle time. This will raise the CAPACITY UTILIZATION RATE.

Eliminate operator standby time. This will raise work efficiency and productivity.

Distribution of the work among workers and machines.

Assigning the optimal numbers of machines per operator.

Assigning the optimal number of operators to joint operations.

What is operator-machine analysis.

It is the study of the relationships between the respective operating times of man and machine.

Determines when idle time occurs and helps eliminate the wasted time involved.

helps increase productivity yield.

optimizes no. of machines per operator.

maintain current yield using FEWER machines.

~ ~ eliminate inefficicient use of time.

Remember to carefully consider the layout of equipment and the positions of the operators as another area that could be improved.

Steps in operator-analysis.

preliminary study.

Go to workshop,ask around,observe,read up on conditions,pay attention to workers doing their jobs.

Carry a operator process report perhaps with you.

Find out proficiency of workers and special functions which must or is believed to be required.

GOALS MUST BE SPECIFIC. Meet with supervisors to find where improvement is needed most. ~ ~ higher efficiency, more machines per operator, which machine perform what kind of special functions. OR WHATEVER.

 ANALYZE ONE OPERATION CYCLE.

Will draw up a flow chart with interactions between operator and machine.

ARRANGE THE TIMING.

Study how number 2 works. P 102 of productivity though process analysis.

 measure the time each operation step.

The point is to match up operations so there is no idle time for man or machine.

 draw an operator machine chart.

Use the y axis for time so longer times make up taller columns.

Organize the analysis results.

Work out an improvement plan.

Make a list of improvement concerns.

 Implement and evaluate the improvement plan.

If #8 is successful then STANDARDIZE IT.

JOINT OPERATION ANALYSIS.

What is it.

J.O.A. is the study of the time based interrelationship among several workers.

The objective once again is to reduce the BIG THREE.

The joint operation chart is similar to the operator-machine one.

STEPS

Preliminary study

study target worksite/ read operation-machine steps for basis , only difference will be noted here.

 +++++++++++++++++++

 Process flow chart.

 

8 different things that are the reasons for PRODUCT PROCESS ANALYSIS.

1.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

 

4 steps in process analysis.

Define each step.

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

4 types of process flow charts.

1

2

3

4

 FOUR types of process analysis.

 OPERATOR and MACHINE_______________________ JOINT

9 STEPS________________________________________ 9 STEPS AND 2 TYPES

 

Chapter One

 

Productivity -the total value of the outputs goods or services divided by the total cost of the inputs.

Manufacture operation -it produces physical goods.

Productivity can increase in three ways:

1. by using the same amounts of inputs to produce more output.

2. by using smaller amounts of inputs to produce the same amount of output.

3. by using smaller amounts of inputs to produce more output.

Life cycle approach -for every product there are decline and termination in life cycle.

Operation Strategy:

1. competitiveness,

2. manufacturing is a strategy

3. identify critical success factor -quality, cost, flexibility, and delivery

Types of manufacturing operation:

1. Project -most flexible, big project, costly, highly customized.

2. Job Shop -characterized by a process-focused grouping of resources.

3. Line-flow -characterized by a product-focused grouping of resources.

4. Continuos flow -often involve chemical or physical reaction.

5. Batch production -stages of production are similar.

 

 

MORE FLEXIBLE

 

CONTINUOS FLOW LINE FLOW- JOB SHOP - PROJECT -

 

Make to order -the company do not produced the product unless a order was received.

Make to stock -company which produced goods and place them inventory before receive order.

Assemble to order -it manufactures standardized, option modules according to forecast it has made after receiving the customer’s order.

Flexibility -the ability of the operation to efficiently produce highly customized product.

Value Activities:

Primary Activities:

1. inbound logistics

2. operation.

3. outbound logistics.

4. marketing and sales.

5. customer service.

Support Activities:(Secondary)

1. company infrastructure.

2. human resource management.

3. technology development.

4. procurement.

 

Recent trends in O.M.:

Just-in-time -system which producing one unit more than needed is considered wasteful.

Total quality management -building product with high quality, and low-cost.

Computer related technology -

Time based competition -research and development to manufacturing and procurement and on through to marketing and distribution.

Bus process Reengineering -rethinking and radical redesign of bus processes to dramatically improve cost, quality, service, and speed.

Service Factory -not only compete for the product but also on services.

 

Chapter Two

Services -are economic activities that produce a place, time, form, or psychological utility for the consumer.

 

Types of Services:

1. unskilled personal -housekeeping and street vending.

2. skilled personal -repair maintenance, retailer, whole sale, financial clerks.

3. industrial services -lawyer, accountant, banker, real-estate broker, traders.

4. mass consumer service -airline, hotels, rental companies, wellness indust.

5. high technology business service -innovation like satellite, laser, biomedical.

 

Types of Operations:

1. project -long duration, unit volume, custom product.

2. job shop -short duration, low volume, custom product.

3. line flow -short duration, high volume, standard product.

4. continuous flow -continuous processing, homogeneous manner.

 

Characteristics of Service Operations:

1. high consumer contact:

a. constant physical contact -barbers and cosmetologist.

b. constant communication with consumer in the service process -Dr.

c. sporadic physical contact -medical and legal services.

d. sporadic communication contact

e. contact happen only at beginning and end of service.

2. consumer participation in service

3. perishability of service

4. facility site selection dictated by consumer’s location.

5. labor intensiveness

6. variable, nonstandard output

7. intangibility of the service output

8. difficulty of measuring service productivity

 

 

 

 

9. difficulty of measuring service quality:

a. tangible -

b. reliability

c. responsiveness

d. assurance

e. empathy

 

Elements of a Strategic Service Vision:

1. target market segments -understand the market segments, strength of competitor.

2. service concept -expectations for service in minds of consumer and employees.

3. operating strategy -finance, quality, productivity, cost, and roles of operation.

4. service delivery -establish specific roles of people, tech., layout and procedure.

 

Technology and Automation in Services:

1. processing the customer -medical, entertainment, and cosmetics.

2. processing the customer’s material -photo shop, dry cleaning, car wash.

3. processing information -financial planning.

4. creating new services -create new service.

 

 

Chapter Three

 

Strategic Planning Hierarchy:

1.Corporate-level strategic -develop overall plan to effectively guide the corp.

2. Business-level strategic -enable the SBU to successfully compete in business.

3. Functional-level strategic -close link to bus.level, implement to achieve the goal.

 

Business-level Strategic Planning:

Porter’s Five Competitive Force:

1. threats of new company entering

2. threats of substitution

3. bargaining power of buyer.

4. bargaining power of supplier

5. rivalry among competitors

 

Generic Business Strategies:

1. cost leadership

2. differentiation

 

Operation Strategic Planning:

Operation strategy -a collective pattern of choices that determines the structure, resources, and infrastructure of the operations system and support to business- level strategies.

 

 

Strategic Choices in Operation:

1. product / service planning.

2. process design and technology management.

3. long-range capacity planning and facility location.

4. quality management.

5. manufacturing or service organization.

6. human resource management.

7. operation planning and control.

 

Operations Competitive Priorities -strategic objectives for which operations is primarily responsible.

Strategic Operations Choice -series of coordinated decisions which could be structural or infrastructure.

Capacity strategies -amount and timing of capacity changes in response to changes in demand in light of the company’s strategic goal.

Capacity cushion -building and maintaining extra capacity so that it is available as soon as it is needed.

Strategic position -what set the company’s strategy to achieve the goal.

 

Service Process Matrix:

Service factories -low labor intensity and low degree of customer interaction and customization .

Service shop -middling degree of interaction with and customization for customer.

Mass service -high degree of labor intensity and low degree of customer interaction.

Professional service -high degree of interaction and also customization for customer.

 

Chapter 5

 

New product introduction:

1. generating ideas

2. selecting features.

3. producing a preliminary design

4. developing a prototype

5. test marketing the prototype

6. mass marketing the final product.

Quality function deployment -a formal technique for translating the voice of the customer into the language of design and manufacturing engineers.

House of quality:

1. voice of customer.

2. competitive analysis

3. voice of engineer.

correlations.

5. technical comparison

6. trade off.

Value analysis -use to assess the characteritics of the product, the customer who will buy it and how they will use it, and the objective of the company in launching it.

Cross functional team –

 

BACK TO 100 examples in Business, Operations and Engineering.
Click Here

           Apply  Worldwide Now         

Do it once, do it right, and do it now.

Email Lawson Computing

Back to Lawson Computing Homepage

Apply as needed, when needed.